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The Flying Costume of Harriet Quimby

 (b. 1875 d. 1912) Americas first licensed female pilot (1911) The first woman to solo across the English Channel (1912) From the forthcoming book “Birdwoman The Incredible Life of Harriet Quimby” by Giacinta Bradley Koontz INTRODUCTION BY JOAN KIPLINGER “Fashion flies high,” perhaps best sums up this month’s fascinating column by guest, Giacinta Bradley Koontz.

Founder and Director of the Harriet Quimby Research Conference, Giacinta is a biographer of the life of flamboyant Harriet Quimby, America’s first licensed female pilot. And what has all this to do with vintage fabric? Well, for starters, Quimby designed the first safe costume for women fliers, made with the very latest “wool-backed satin,” of 1911.

For more information on both Harriet Quimby and Giacinta Bradley Koontz see her web site: www.HarrietQuimby.org.

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Giacinta Bradley Koontz On December 17, 1903 the Wright Brothers made history with the world’s first powered controlled flight at Kitty Hawk . On August 1, 1911, Harriet Quimby, passed tests administered by the Aero Club of America becoming the first woman licensed to fly in the U.S. Wilbur and Orville Wright set the fashion for men fliers by wearing suits with vests and ties during exhibition flights.

But no one was prepared for what Harriet Quimby chose to wear when she took to the air.

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Harriet Quimby – U.S.

Air Mail Stamp “If a woman wants to fly, first of all she must, of course, abandon skirts…” Harriet Quimby, May 25, 1911 Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly Early one spring morning in 1911, a reporter from the Boston Daily Eagle watched students make their first attempts at flying aeroplanes on the flat fields of Long Island. These fledglings were no ordinary mortals sitting beside a veteran instructor pilot as they must do today on first flights.

These early birds were expected to learn by example – which boiled down to trial and error. Supplemented with classroom instruction and hands-on experience assembling an aircraft nose to tail, the student next entered the first of three phases “driving” an aeroplane. Alone in their aircraft, students first taxied, then “hopped” or “trimmed the daisies,” then soared above.

As horse drawn carts shared roads with early motorcars, it is not surprising that climbing into the fuselage (now termed “cockpit”) was referred to as “mounting” the machine, and pilots knocked about in turbulent air described their machine as “bucking.” Little was known then about air pockets, wind shear or even such an elemental factor as the center of gravity.

There were many frightening unknowns as aviators trusted their lives to fragile wooden frames, covered partially by fabric, held together by ordinary upholstery tacks, wooden dowels and lots of glue. Less was known about a “heavily veiled woman [whose] identity could not be learned” seen bouncing across the grassy terrain in a Bleriot type monoplane, May 6, 1911. It was Harriet Quimby – and soon the whole world knew who she was. The Working Woman of 1911 So few people had actually seen an aeroplane fly it was still big news when anyone took to the air.

You did not have to be an engineer in those times to have a strong opinion about wing design, engine type, or to take sides in the divided camps for bi-planes (Wright Flyers, Curtiss Pushers, etc.) vs. monoplanes (Bleriots, Deperdussins) as well as the most debated issue of all, could women control their emotions as well as their veils, and fly? At 37, Harriet Quimby already drove her own runabout, held a senior editorial position with New York’s popular Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly and lived as a single woman in Manhattan.

Apparently without male companionship she traveled around the world aiming her camera at common street scenes to illustrate her remarkable feature stories. No donkey boy in Egypt, no laundress in the West Indies, no baker of baguettes in France escaped her eye for detail. As versatile as she was practical, Harriet Quimby also earned her salary contributing articles on household tips and automobile repairs, but her passion was theater. Perhaps because Quimby was so lovely to look at, she made the transition from bohemian model and actress to sophisticated drama critic almost seamlessly (pardon the pun.) For Leslie’s she reviewed Broadway plays, the opera, the circus, and eventually, the emerging art form moving pictures.

Perfecting poise and style in her youthful modeling days also served Quimby well when she stepped into the limelight of another very public career. A Style of her own Quimby attended the 1910 Belmont Air Meet on Long Island and saw her first aeroplanes in flight. Inspired by John Moisant who flew a Bleriot monoplane for a racing prize, Quimby decided it looked lucrative as well as fun. “When I saw how easily they [men] could circle the Statue of Liberty,” she said, “I believed I could learn to do that myself.” There is no doubt Quimby loved to fly and she thought it was an excellent sport for women.

But flying for pay was her immediate goal and she dressed accordingly while performing in the “air circus.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Bleriot – Cradle of Aviation Museum Many reporters attempted to describe Quimby’s unique style. Newspaper and magazine articles about Quimby between 1911-1912 were frequently uncredited, but I have made educated guesses about the author’s gender based on subject matter and lexicon. With a feminine eye, World magazine’s Bonnie Ginger described Quimby as few male journalists were capable of doing then or since. “Miss Quimby…has the rich, deep hues of Southern California, a low voice and a brilliant smile, and she runs strongly to overhung bonnets and antique ornaments, such as basilisks, amulets, scarabs so that even in business attire her individuality is very distinctive. She probably wears this sort of thing because she can do it so well ” Seventy five years later, costume researcher Elaine Kopeky observed Quimby’s “summer frock with a very long sailor collar” which she believed was the inspiration for the hood of her flying costume.

When Quimby tossed back her hood it spread out on her shoulders like the collar of her dress. Notes Kopeky, it “was a style Harriet found comfortable and attractive.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Harriet Quimby’s “Summer frock” with sailor collar From Grean to Mauve what to wear in the air? Research for my book, “Birdwoman the Remarkable Life of Harriet Quimby (1875-1912)” led me to an Internet article by Joan Kiplinger (July/August 2000) which mentioned Alexander M. Grean, tailor extraordinaire and Quimby’s costume designer. Exhibition fliers were showmen-performers stars. Quimby was determined to be different and she liked being “first.” She fueled her notoriety publishing self-described accomplishments in Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly.

She made sure each public appearance became an opportunity for publicity, setting aside interview time and photo-ops. Sensing her place in history, she chose to wear a unique flying costume no one would ever forget. During her first flying appearance she wore a scarf which trailed behind her to show the wildly enthusiastic spectators below that a woman was behind the controls. Aviation invents the “Hobble Skirt” How it all started In 1908 Wilbur and Orville Wright exhibited their flying machine in Europe at which time they chose the wife of their business associate, Hart O. Berg, to be the first (ever!) American female passenger in an aeroplane. Mrs. Berg, attired in a huge hat, and long-skirted suit, gamely sat next to Wilbur, who always flew in a suit and tie.

The Wright Flier aeroplane engine, wires, chains and propellers whirled, vibrated, and cranked dangerously close to Mrs. Berg’s loose skirt so a rope was tied at her ankles to eliminate catastrophic entanglements. Her photograph ran in newspapers and magazines around the globe. Picture postcards sold faster than they could be printed. Mrs. Berg’s flight was historic. Women admired her and soon her rope-tied skirt was adapted by Paris designers who ultimately named it the “hobble-skirt.” The style spread like gossip at a sewing bee and was quickly seen in every major city including New York.

[18] Thereafter “Birdwomen” made ingenious modifications, none more striking than that of Harriet Quimby.

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Mrs. Berg with Wilbur Wright – the Hobble Skirt Quimby claimed she could not find a single aviator’s costume in all of New York, yet a Fifth Avenue shop advertised both driving clothes and “Aviation suits,” ready-made. The usually penurious Quimby shunned a costume off the rack and splurged (although she does not reveal the price) for a customized, signature suit of her own. Exuding confidence, Quimby published her advice on what to wear while in an aeroplane two months before she earned her license to fly.

Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, May 25, 1911 “How A Woman Learns to Fly” By Harriet Quimby “I do feel well qualified to tell a beginner how she must dress and what she must do if she expects to be a flyer. If a woman wants to fly, first of all, she must, of course, abandon skirts and don a knickerbocker uniform. I speak of this particularly, because so many have asked me about my flying costume. It may seem strange, but I could not find an aviation suit of any description in the great city of New York and I tried hard. In my perplexity it occurred to me that the president of the American Tailors Association, Alexander M.

Grean, might be a good advisor; and he was, for it did not take him long to design a suit which has no doubt established the aviation costume for women in this country, if not for all the world, since the French women still continue to wear the clumsy and uncomfortable harem skirt as a flying costume. My suit is made of thick wool-back satin, without lining. It is all in one piece, including the hood. By an ingenious combination it can be converted instantly into a conventional appearing walking skirt when not in use in knickerbocker form.” “…..The speed with which the aviator flies and the strong currents created by the rapidly revolving propeller directly in front of the driver compel the latter to be warmly clad.

There must be no flapping ends to catch in the multitudinous wires surrounding the driver’s seat. The feet and legs must be free, so that one can readily manipulate the steering apparatus…” “…Before the student climbs into her seat, she will discover why it is well to cover her natty costume with washable jumpers or overalls. Not only the chassis of the machine, but all the fixtures are slippery with lubricating oil, and when the engine is speeded a shower of this oil is also thrown back directly into the driver’s face.

It is interesting to know that castor oil is used as a lubricant for high-tensioned engines, like the Gnome.” (Quimby’s power plants were either Gnome or Anzani. The “A” on the Anzani engine is barely visible above the propeller mount in this Cradle of Aviation Museum photo.GBK)

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Cradle of Aviation Museum Quimby mannequin and Bleriot Trousers, togs and Trouserettes – (“It would not be nice to say pants”) If you are of the belief that physical attraction (i.e. sexuality) and underwear were “unmentionable” one hundred years ago get over it. Women’s “pants” and corsets got ink in big-city newspapers and aviation magazines. Quimby’s hectic work schedule included late nights, newspaper deadlines and an early drive from Manhattan to Long Island for flying lessons.

A gentleman reporter for Aeronautics declared it would not be proper to say Quimby wore “pants,” but reported she rose at four in the morning and “donned flying trousers for her grass cutting work” [low level flights in trainers.] Purple, Violet, Mauve, Plum or blue? Historians have described the turn of the nineteenth century as the “mauve decade,” when opulence abounded in ostentatious furniture, rich continental food and luxurious cruise line travel. “Mauve” was THE favored color for velvet cushions, wallpaper and cake frosting.

Violets were the favored flower; passion was described as “purple.” Harriet Quimby literally unveiled herself on the public scene wearing the color of the decade. Apparently it was her first and only choice unique and eye-catching. But what color WAS it really? In the 1960’s a California newspaper captioned a photograph of Quimby and Matilde Moisant in their flying costumes as turn-of-the century “pin-up girls” – hardly words either flier would have used.

Moisant was the second licensed female pilot in the U.S. just weeks after Quimby, having both attended the same flying school. Quimby was described as wearing a “plum colored one-piece shocker.” Perhaps not called a “shocker” in 1911, Quimby’s suit was however often described as “plum.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Matilde Moisant and Harriet Quimby 1911 A New York Times reporter of 1911 was unimpressed with aviatrix Helen Dutrieu’s “drab” costume. “Miss Harriet Quimby’s plum colored satin costume is perhaps more picturesque than that of Mlle. Dutrieu,” the reporter noted, “It has a blouse and knickerbockers with a monk hood attached. The knickerbockers have the inside seams closed by rows of buttons which when unfastened convert the knickers into a walking skirt. The blouse is cut with the long shoulder seams and fastens under the arm.

Miss Quimby wears high top leather boots. She says her next costume will be of plain knickerbockers, as she always wears a long coat when she is aground and there is no need of a skirt.” Quimby’s knickerbockers “pants, although alternatively disguised as a modest skirt, was not appreciated by all as a fashion statement. In 1911 her own employer ran an editorial quoting a Connecticut Catholic priest who felt the “new woman” was wearing “vulgar” costumes. Quimby ignored this criticism without so much as a printed rebuttal; so secure in her own image she did not even fear the wrath of God.

Although shiny Rayon was invented in 1910, it is certain Quimby’s costume was made of “wool-backed satin.” Joan Kiplinger supplied me with a list of fabrics from “Drygoodsman’s Handy Dictionary 1912,” selecting her highest “contenders” for Quimby’s costume including: Drap satin, Poplin, and Turk’s satin. Kiplinger and Thelma Bernard sent me a description of fabrics cited in Vogue (1908) which match Quimby’s costume. These “new silks” according to Vogue, “are made of a satin weave and luster which do not float away but hold their drape strengthened by a wool like satin cachemise crepe.

This fabric has the appearance of a heavy quality of liberty satin with crepe finish, exquisitely lustrous and falling into graceful folds with every pose of the wearer.” Eager and willing to pose for flattering publicity pictures with or without her aeroplane, these “new silks” were just what Quimby had in mind! What did other “Birdwomen” wear in 1911? There were certainly dozens of women fliers in other countries, and several on the flying fields of America, all experimenting with clothing they found comfortable and safe to wear. But Quimby spread her wings among just three professional fliers; Matilde Moisant and Blanche Stuart Scott from the U.S. and a daring former motorcycle stunt woman from Europe, Helene Dutrieu. Blanche Stuart Scott (b. 1890-d.1960) Blanche Stuart Scott began flying about one year before Quimby but never applied for a license.

In 1910 this rather robust girl was often photographed at the controls of her Curtiss Pusher (bi-plane) wearing various bulky sweaters with long skirts and a snug soft leather helmet over her substantial hairdo. She eventually designed a satin smooth jumpsuit to wear flying which bulged clown-like at her thighs from layers of petticoats (to keep her legs warm in the cold high-altitude air.) Sometimes nick-named the “Tom Boy of the Air,” Blanche was not a beautiful, delicate woman, and although she lacked fashion, she was an exciting accomplished flier and crowd-pleaser.

Helen Dutrieu (b.1877-d.1961) and Matilde Moisant (b.1878-d.1964) Based on such specific reference to fabric and style, I suspect a woman wrote the article in 1911 for the New York Times observing, “The accepted toggery [of a lady flier] is a two piece suit consisting of a blouse and knickerbockers or trouserettes. The headgear differs according to the feminine idea. It may be an automobile cap or a becoming hood of some soft material.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Los Angeles Times January 1910 Helen Dutrieu, the “Lady Hawk” swooped into the 1911 Nassau Boulevard Air Meet where Quimby also participated. “Her drab colored costume of cravenette serge caught the feminine eye as she swung across the flying field,” wrote the Times journalist. “Her two piece suit consists of a blouse and a divided skirt, with a suggestion of the harem.

The two garments are joined by a black patent leather belt, and a Norfolk jacket effect is obtained by an arrangement sewed on the upper part of the skirt, which falls gracefully over the feet when she walks and with a button and strap is secured around her ankles before she mounts her Farman biplane.” Matilde Moisant, was a daring and remarkable flier. Petite and spectacled, she flew professionally in her brother’s air circus, and like Harriet, Moisant flew a monoplane in the Nassau Boulevard meet of 1911. “With the exception of the hood and the material,” continued the Times, “the costume of Miss Moisant is practically a duplicate of the one worn by Miss Quimby.

It is made of a heavy tan colored cloth and interlined with silk, while Miss Quimby reverses the materials.” To avoid poking a whalebone through her chest in case of a “crack-up,” the reporter immodestly revealed “Mlle. Dutrieu is always corsetless when she soars. Neither of the American fliers, Miss Quimby and Miss Moisant takes this precaution.” Quimby’s prediction that her knickerbockers would be worn by all future female pilots was not far from the truth, although Ruth Law, Bernetta Miller and other birdwomen who followed her were not known for a specifically designed flying costume.

Just weeks following Harriet Quimby’s death in Massachusetts, Katherine Stinson (b.1893 – d.1977) became the fourth American woman to earn her license. She was only 19 years old. Except for her oft-worn woolen caps (with the brim to the rear so it would not fly off) her variable flying costumes were a mixture of trousers, jackets, and sweaters with boots laced and/or strapped to the knee. Between 1912-1920, Katherine was perhaps the most famous aviatrix in the world, during which time she never appears to wear the same outfit twice!

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Harriet Quimby-Dover April 16, 1912 The Cross-Channel Flight April 16, 1912 Already famous for her exhibition flying, Harriet Quimby secured her place in aviation history by becoming the first woman to solo across the English Channel on April 16, 1912. She flew from Dover, England to the shores of France near Equihen. Amelia Earhart once wrote that Quimby’s fight was “probably the most perilous heavier than air flight up to that time attempted by a feminine pilot.” Earhart described Quimby’s flying costume as “Extraordinary clothes!” Reporters from the London Daily Mirror covered the story and it appeared the next day, relegated to page eight while the news of the Titanic disaster screamed from the headlines.

The bitter coastal chill necessitated layers of unattractive, bulky coats, but for her “photo-op” prior to flight, Quimby posed for the reporter in her flying costume: “She wore over her picturesque, close-fitting blue silk flying suit a gray woolen cloak, a waterproof raincoat and sealskin furs. Her silk cap is made in one piece with her costume, and a blue silk motor veil wound round it floated out behind her head as she flew.

“I wear that to show that I am a woman if people see my flying high up,” she said.” Quimby’s “cap,” as we recognize it, was really her “hood” and I don’t think Quimby wore blue at all that day. I am convinced the reporter for the London Daily Mirror had deuteranopia protanopia color blindness where shades of red (and green) are perceived as blue, brown or gray. People with Red Green Colour Vision deficiency confuse blue and purple colors.

It occurs in one in twenty white males but rarely affects females. When Elaine Kopecky researched details to create her replica of Quimby’s flying costume she wrote: “By the time Miss Quimby flew the channel, she had apparently taken to wearing more conventional knickers. Also, her bodice had no evidence of front buttons and was of an astonishingly modern cut. I chose not to produce that costume because it lacks the “quaint” appeal of the more complicated version.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Harriet Quimby – France April 16, 1912 Although dangerous, Quimby’s cross-channel flight was made without mishap. She returned to New York City and less hazardous flying. Ironically, she and her male passenger fell to their deaths just three months later while making an exhibition flight around the Boston Light in Massachusetts. Hundreds of spectators gasped in horror. Her body was taken to nearby Quincy and then to New York where she was buried. She was laid to rest in a white dress she intended to wear at a luncheon in her honor. Her “lucky” jewelry and her flying costume have never been found.

In her article entitled “Here’s the Airgirl!- A Talk with Harriet Quimby,” Bonnie Ginger described Quimby’s disposition as determined yet sweet; a woman who could tame a wild horse into eating “lump sugar out of her hand.” Quimby’s flying costume says a lot about the woman who wore it. She was beautiful, daring, flashy, and smart. Her flying career was remarkable, but Quimby also contributed hundreds of well-crafted articles which are still interesting and enjoyable to read.

Quimby’s “determination” to be independent was well summed up by Ginger and holds true today: “A woman who does a lot of things well is pretty apt to know what she’s about.” AUTHOR’S NOTE: Ninety years ago this month Harriet Quimby became the first woman to solo across the English Channel. Read her full account at www.HarrietQuimby.org (Menu selection “All Harriet”)

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Cradle of Aviation Museum Quimby mannequin THE KOPECKY REPLICA OF QUIMBY’S FLYING COSTUME Elaine Kopecky worked at Rhinebeck Aerodrome in New York before she designed the first well-researched and constructed replica of Harriet Quimby’s flying costume for the International Women’s Air and Space Museum in Ohio during 1987. Quimby flew five different Bleriot-type monoplanes during the eleven months of her career between 1911-1912.

The differences are subtle yet track her evolution from “trainer aircraft” to “passenger-carrying aircraft.” Likewise, Quimby continually perfected her flying costume for fashion and comfort. Kopecky identified at least four separate and distinct flying costumes worn in public beginning with Quimby’s brown coverall-type suit while taking lessons. “Thereafter,” Kopecky notes, “her clothing was described as being purple in one shade or another, probably depending upon the vocabulary of the author.” The Cradle of Aviation Museum in Garden City New York (Long Island) will soon have its highly anticipated Grand Opening. For their “Pioneer Era” display they will exhibit a Bleriot monoplane and a mannequin of Harriet Quimby.

In 1997, I connected Kopecky with the CAM’s curator, Joshua Stoff and the result was a museum quality replica of Quimby’s flying costume which is remarkable! In every detail; the tiny hook and eye seams, the covered buttons, the ingenious interpretation of the “hobble skirted” design – it is the best example I have ever seen. Ms. Kopeky presumed Quimby to be about 5’10″ tall, and a “modern dress size 12, with a 25″ waist.” In a letter accompanying the delivery of the flying costume to CAM, Kopeky wrote the following excerpted description: “I made the costume of a medium weight wool under polyester charmeuse, a low-luster satin of the closest color-match I could find. I believe this produces the correct characteristics of drape, bulk, and weight for the “tall and willowy” figure [of Harriet Quimby]” “Below the waistband the garment is constructed in the form of culottes with deep front pleats made to resemble a skirt the back of her garment had panels set into the side seams and gave the appearance of a wrap-around tunic-skirt when the knickers were unfastened.”

The leg extensions outside her boots which hold the knickers tightly below the knee obviously were fastened with four straps and appear to be 6 or 7 inches long. I made the straps and their keepers decorative when loosened to enhance the appearance of an early hobble skirt under a long tunic. Snap fasteners under these straps hold them in place when the knicker buttons are unfastened. The bodice was constructed without darts and the necessary fullness for a feminine figure was achieved by the incorporation of a small gusset under the arm and gathers into a tight waistband. This is consistent with clothing construction of the period. The sleeve is a narrow, modified raglan, shaped in the front to give a graceful shoulder line. Tight cuffs allow a comfortable fit under her gauntlets.”

The front of the bodice features an extra layer of fabric over the button front. The button front was necessary to accommodate the choker collar many authors describe as well as the mechanics of the hood. The button front accommodates a simple coordination with the front closing of the culotte. The outer front layer of the bodice has no buttons and fastens with hooks and eyes at the left neck, shoulder and in several places along the side sleeve and underarm seams. The outer front panel has a V-neck to accommodate the design of the hood. When buttoned across the top of her head and tightly under her chin the collar became a very practical hood.

The front buttons close to her face could be released to allow for a softer, more photogenic mien. The lace-covered ear holes integrated into a decorative pattern on the collar and are not too conspicuous on the underside which is visible when the hood is worn.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

Cradle of Aviation Museum – Quimby’s hood “Small patches of black net are inserted over the part of Miss Quimby’s hood that covers the ears, so that she can keep in touch with the workings of her engine.”

THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY   THE FLYING COSTUME OFHARRIET QUIMBY

New Idea Pattern for Giacinta’s flying costume (1999) and Giacinta at Equihen, France wearing flying costume (1999) AUTHOR’S NOTE: My personal version of Quimby’s flying costume is neither accurate in color (too “purple”) nor design. I needed a costume which fit me comfortably for my own commemorative flight across the channel in a small aircraft during 1999.

Although I didn’t find the proper mauve satin, I did find a 1910 Ladies Bloomer Dress pattern from The New Idea Pattern Company of New York which looked a lot like Quimby’s flying “togs.”

WEB LINKS TO PIONEER AVIATION: The Centennial of Flight 2003 www.centennialofflight.gov (and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics); www.centennialofflight.org www.centennialofflight.com The Cradle of Aviation Museum www.cradleofaviation.org The Early Birds www.earlybirds.org The Harriet Quimby Research Center www.HarrietQuimby.org The International Women’s Air & Space Museum www.iwasm.org Lincoln Beachey Pioneer Aviator www.lincolnbeachey.com Postcards of early aviation www.lincolnbeachey.com/pstcrd The National Air&Space Museum www.nasm.org

RECOMMENDED READING: Contact! The Story of the Early Birds by H.S. Villard, Crowell, NY 1968 Die Ladys in den fligenden Kisten, G. Schmitt, Brandenburgisches Verlagshaus, Berlin 1993 The Fun of It, by Amelia Earhart, Putnam, 1932 The Magnificent Moisants Champions of Early Flight Doris L. Rich, Smithsonian Washing D.C. 1998 Picture History of Early Aviation 1903-1913 by Joshua Stoff, Dover 1996 Purple Passage The Life of Mrs. Frank Leslie, by Madelaine B. Stern, Oklahoma Press 1970 Tiny Broadwick The First Lady of Parchuting by Elizabeth Whitley Roberson, Pelican, 2001 U.S. Women in Aviation Through WWI by C. M. Oakes, Smithsonian Washington D.C.

1978 When the Shute Went Up Adventures of a Lady Parachutist Dolly Shepard, by Peter Hearn and Dolly Sedgwick, Skyline Press, UK 1996 Women Aloft (“Epic of Flight”) by Valerie Moolman, Time-Life Books, NY 1993 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aeronautics, “The Moisant School” June 1911 Bernard, Thelma, personal communication, February 2002 re: Alexander Grean Boston Daily Eagle, May 6, 1911 “Good Flights at Mineola” Cumings, Julie, Tomboy of the Air Daredevil Pilot Blanche Stuart Scott Harper Collins Pub., NY 2001 Chicago Tribune October 23, 1910 p.

H5, advise to the hobble wearer Earhart, Amelia, The Fun of It, Putnam, NY 1932 Ionnitiu, Lygia, unpublished manuscript, “When Milady Went Flying,” 1999 [re: Aerial Age, June 1912] Kiplinger, Joan, personal communication, October 2001, re: Vogue 1908 and “Drygoodsman’s Handy Dictionary 1912″ Kopecky, Elaine, IWASM flier dated September 26, 1987 “The Harriet Quimby Costume.” Kopecky, Elaine, letter dated February 17, 1997 to Rebecca Looney, Cradle of Aviation Museum Koontz, G.B., Ed., “The Harriet Quimby Research Conference Journals Volume Three (1997),” The Five Monoplanes of Harriet Quimby by Carroll F.

Gray Los Angeles Times, (unknown date ~1960) “Aviatrix of 1911 Valley Resident” Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly, “Women’s Immodest Dress,” Editorial October 5, 1911 London Daily Mirror, “American Woman First to Cross Channel” April 17, 1912 New York Times, Sept. 2, 1910 man steals hobble skirt New York Times “Hobble Skirt Cargo Arrives” September 4, 1910 (value high) New York Times, “Harriet Quimby” (date unknown) 1911(costume description) Oakes, Claudia M., U.S.

Women in Aviation Through WWI, Smithsonian Press Washington D.C. 1978 Quimby, Harriet, “We Girls Who Fly and What We’re Afraid of,” Leslie’s, 1912 Quimby, Harriet, “How can we save our Birds,” Leslie’s June 8, 1911 Rich, Doris L., The Magnificent Moisants Champions of Early Flight, Smithsonian Washington D.C. 1998 Stern, Madelaine B., Purple Passage The Life of Mrs.

Frank Leslie, Oklahoma Press 1970 San Francisco Chronicle, August 1, 1910 – woman tries to cheat duty inspector (hobble) San Francisco Chronicle “Want Lower Rates on Women’s Hats,” January 28, 1910 San Francisco Chronicle July 1912, “Birdwoman is California Girl” Winegarten, Debra L., Katharine Stinson, The Flying Schoolgirl, Eakins Press, TX 2001 Reference Web sites: Series IV photographs Wright Brothers Collection, Wright State University Library (web site: www.libraries.wright.edu) “Women in Aviation and Space History” (www.nasm.edu) (Mrs. Berg) www.50.connect.co.uk (clothes) www.gramarye_3.tripod.com (clothes) Lienhard, John H., excerpted from lecture “Women in Flight,” 1999 Houston, TX (www.uh.edu) (re: Mrs. Berg) All photographs are from the private collection of the author with many thanks to Pat Fry, San Diego Aerospace Museum, Joshua Stoff, Cradle of Aviation Museum and The London Daily Mirror. Wilbur Wright and Mrs. Berg’s photograph: www.nasm.edu The arbitrary cut-off date for this Vintage Fabric column is 1960.

To stay within the scope of this timeframe, reference materials published up to that date are the prime source of information to more accurately capture actual thoughts of the time.

Joan Kiplinger is an antique doll costumer and vintage fabric addict who learned to sew on her grandmother’s treadle and has been peddling fabrications ever since.